A Black Smoker is also known as a sea vent. which is a type of hydrothermal vent or underwater hot spring found on the ocean floor. They are formed in fields of hundreds of meters wide. When it comes in contact with cold ocean water, many minerals precipitate, forming black chimney-like structure around each vent


Black Smokers were discovered in 1977 on the East Pacific Rise by scientist from Scripps Institution of Oceanography. Now black smokers are known to exist in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans at an average depth of 2100 meters.

The water at a vent can reach 752 °F, but does not usually boil at the sea floor because the water pressure at that depth exceeds the vapor pressure of the aqueous solution. The water also has a lot of acid in it, often having a pH value as low as 2.8, approximately that of vinegar. Each year 370 trillion gallons of water is passed through black smokers.

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ALL INFO FROM WIKIPEDIA --- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_smoker